Voortgangsrapporten Kosovo, Albanië, Bosnia Herzegovina, Montenegro en Servië gepubliceerd
Nieuwsbericht | 07-11-2006
Brussels, 8 November 2006
Key findings of the progress reports on Kosovo and the
potential candidate countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Albania Albania signed a Stabilisation and Association
Agreement (SAA) with the EU on 12 June 2006. Signing this agreement
represented an important step forward on Albania's EU path. Albania
now faces the challenge of successfully implementing its SAA,
starting with the trade-related provisions contained in the interim
agreement, which enters into force on 1 December 2006.
Albania has made progress in several key areas. It has shown
determination in fighting corruption. It has adopted a plan to
fulfil European Partnership and SAA obligations and set up new
structures to implement it. Albania has continued to contribute to
stability in the region.
However, further progress is needed on co-operation between
government and opposition to enable key reforms. Administrative
capacity needs to be rebuilt following major staff changes and
ministerial restructuring. Albania needs to make additional progress
on political and judicial reform and human rights, as well as the
fight against corruption and organised crime. The legal framework
for media freedom needs to be improved and properly implemented.
Albania has made progress towards being a functioning market
economy. It has maintained macroeconomic stability, strong economic
growth and low inflation. Fiscal consolidation has further advanced.
Administrative barriers to market entry have been reduced.
Further reform is needed to enable Albania to cope with competitive
pressures. External imbalances widened and exports remained very
weak. Albania needs to address shortcomings in the business climate,
especially poor infrastructure, to encourage economic development.
Substantial work is needed to formalise the large grey economy.
Albania has made some progress on putting in place the structures
and laws needed to meet European standards. Progress has been made
in the fields of fighting organised crime and improving the
administration of customs, competition, standardisation and statistics.
Pushing forward reform in areas such as public procurement,
intellectual property, information society and media, SME policy,
agriculture, fisheries and veterinary and phytosanitary control will
now be important for successful SAA implementation.
The EU continues to provide technical and financial assistance. For
2006, € 45.5 million pre-accession assistance is available for Albania.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina's started negotiations for a Stabilisation
and Association Agreement (SAA) in November 2005. A considerable
part of the text of the SAA has already been agreed. The conclusion
of SAA negotiations depends on further progress on a number of
priorities, most notably full cooperation with the International
Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), police reform
and broadcasting legislation.
Progress with regard to the political criteria has continued. The
planned phasing out of the Office of the High Representative (OHR)
is recognition of the country's achievements in terms of security
and stability. The conduct of the general elections of 1 October
represented further consolidation of democracy and the rule of law.
A strategy for the public administration reform has been adopted.
Some steps have been taken towards providing the State institutions
with sufficient resources.
Bosnia and Herzegovina needs in particular to step up its efforts
regarding the police reform. Other priorities are adopting all
necessary public broadcasting legislation and the strengthening of
the public administration, as well as full co-operation with the
ICTY. Constitutional reform should be undertaken, to ensure that the
country’s institutions work properly both at state and entity level.
Some progress has been made towards becoming a functioning market
economy. Coordination on fiscal policies across the country deepened
and a value added tax has been successfully introduced. Fiscal
consolidation continued and growth remained strong.
However, imbalances in the trade and current accounts remain to be
tackled. Proper decision-making as regards economic and fiscal
policies needs to be ensured. Privatisation and corporate
restructuring have to be speeded up. The business climate and
corporate governance need to be improved.
Bosnia and Herzegovina has made further steps towards meeting
European standards. Progress has been made in the fields of
taxation, anti-trust policy, transport, energy and some of the
justice and home affairs-related areas.
It needs to intensify its efforts in other areas such as free
movement of goods and services, customs, state aids, SMEs,
employment, education, environment and statistics. Concrete action
is necessary to achieve a single economic space within the country.
Overall administrative capacity needs further strengthening.
The European Commission will continue providing financial
assistance. In the framework of the 2006 CARDS national programme, €
51 million pre-accession assistance has been allocated to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Montenegro achieved independence in June 2006 after a referendum
held in a free and fair manner under conditions agreed with the
European Union. Following independence, the EU launched negotiations
for a Stabilisation and Association Agreement with Montenegro on 26
September 2006. They build upon results of earlier negotiations with
the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.
A key challenge will be to upgrade Montenegro’s administrative
capacity, particularly in order to implement the SAA after it is
signed. These and other priorities for Montenegro are set out in the
draft European Partnership.
Montenegro has made some progress in the area of the political
criteria. It managed smoothly the process leading to independence.
The parliamentary elections held on 10 September 2006 were conducted
in line with international standards. Efforts to increase the
efficiency of the government, parliament and public administration
have continued. Some elements for a political consensus on key
choices have started to emerge. Willingness to fight corruption and
to consolidate the rule of law, including judicial reform, has increased.
However, in practice, weaknesses remained. The judicial system is
weak, while corruption and organised crime remain problems. The
country needs to significantly upgrade its institutions and its
efforts, to achieve results on the ground. The Constitution to be
adopted needs to be fully in line with European standards.
Cooperation with the ICTY should continue.
Montenegro has made some progress towards becoming a functioning
market economy. The country maintained a broad consensus on the
essentials of economic policies. Macroeconomic stability prevails,
economic growth gained pace and foreign direct investment remained high.
However, growth remains dependent on few sectors, and external
imbalances widened. The labour market remained rigid and
unemployment high. The business environment is hampered by
regulatory obstacles. Reform efforts must be pursued to enable the
country to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within
the Union in the future.
Montenegro made some progress in approximating legislation and
policies with European standards. It further advanced in
strengthening its administrative capacity in particular in
coordination of European integration matters, including on the
negotiations for a Stabilisation and Association Agreement.
However, it is still at an early stage of preparations and
considerable resources need to be allocated to deal with the
challenges of introduction and full implementation of legislation.
This concerns notably key areas of the SAA, such as free movement of
goods, customs, competition, public procurement, agriculture and
social policy, and employment. Special efforts are required in the
area of Justice Freedom and Security, including the fight against
organised crime and visa policy.
The European Commission will continue to provide significant
financial assistance to support Montenegro. , Montenegro receives
€23 million pre-accession assistance in 2006.
Serbia initially made significant progress in the Stabilisation and
Association Agreement (SAA) negotiations, where it showed its
considerable administrative capacity. However, in May 2006
negotiations were called off because the Belgrade authorities did
not meet their commitments to cooperate with the International
Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY). Negotiations
will be resumed as soon as full cooperation with the ICTY is achieved.
Serbia is to be commended for the responsible way it handled the
dissolution of the State Union following Montenegro's independence.
The adoption of a new Constitution is a welcome development. Civil
service legislation has been improved and administrative reform
proceeded well. The strategies on judicial reform and fight against
corruption have been adopted. Overall, the situation of human rights
and of minorities has improved further. Serbia is actively
contributing to regional cooperation.
However, the new Constitution presents some areas of concern,
notably in relation to the independence of the judiciary. The fight
against corruption must be stepped up. Civilian control over the
military must be implemented effectively. Serbia needs to achieve
full cooperation with ICTY. It also needs to have a constructive
approach as regards Kosovo.
Serbia has made notable progress towards being a functioning market
economy. Economic growth has continued. Foreign direct investment
has been boosted, mainly due to privatisation. Economic integration
with the EU has advanced.
However, stabilisation and reform efforts need also to be continued
in order to enable Serbia to cope with competitive pressure in the
future. Serbia continues to need strong fiscal adjustment. It has
also to strengthen the enterprise sector and promote greenfield
investments by stepping up corporate restructuring, implementation
of bankruptcy procedures and privatisation.
Serbia made good progress in approximating its legislation and
policies in most areas, including the fight against money-laundering
and trafficking in human beings, as well as standardisation,
accreditation, movement of services, certain areas concerning the
internal market, customs, education, employment and social policy,
SME policy, agriculture and transport. Overall, Serbia has further
strengthened its administrative capacity to be able to implement the
However, efforts are needed in a number of the areas such as
taxation, state aid, public procurement, intellectual property
rights, consumer protection, food safety, environment, information
society and financial control. Serbia has also to make efforts on
visa policy, border control, asylum, police and security services
reform, the fight against organised crime and the protection of
The EU will continue to provide significant financial assistance is
to support Serbia. For the year 2006, €167 million pre-accession
assistance is available for Serbia.
Kosovo (under UN Security Council Resolution 1244)
Kosovo has remained stable and made progress in the transfer of
respon sibilities to the provisional institutions of self
government. New ministries of justice and the interior have been
created. An important reform package was adopted to improve the
functioning of Kosovo's Assembly. Kosovo has enhanced its
participation in regional fora and cooperation initiatives.
However, the focus on status has delayed significant reform
efforts. Kosovo's administration remains weak, affecting the rule of
law. Judicial institutions have made little progress in civil and
criminal justice. In spite of the authorities' high-profile outreach
campaign to improve the situation of minorities, minority groups
continue to be in a disadvantaged position. Conditions for the
sustainable return of refugees and displaced persons remain
difficult. There has been little progress regarding corruption,
which remains widespread.
Consensus on the fundamentals of economic policy has been broadly
maintained and fiscal policy tightened. A medium-term economic
policy framework has been established and the first expenditure
framework has been adopted. Marked progress has been made in the
privatisation of socially owned enterprises and the incorporation of
publicly owned enterprises.
However, Kosovo has made limited progress towards becoming a
functioning market economy. Macroeconomic stability has not been
achieved, mainly due to the fragile fiscal and external positions
and the weak enforcement of property rights. Unemployment remains high.
Kosovo has made some progress towards approximate its legislation
and policies with European standards.
However, limited progress has been made in the effective
implementation and enforcement of legislation passed. More efforts
are needed to create an administrative environment that will ensure
further approximation to European standards. Some progress has been
made in the environment, transport, energy, customs, taxation,
police and border control. Kosovo needs to improve in areas such as
fight against organised crime, trafficking of human beings and
drugs, agriculture, statistics and intellectual property rights.
EU financial assistance in 2006 amounted to €59.5 million
pre-accession assistance. The EU also made available a €50 million
macro-financial assistance package, intended to fill the budget gaps
in 2006 and 2007.
 Under UN Security Council Resolution 1244